How science really works or why exoplanets were completely unknown before 1995, now just 20 years ago.
An explosion of our knowledge about the universe changed our view to the universe completely: Nearly 2000 extrasolar planets (1854 in dec. 2014) detected in extremely short time, in less than 20 years!
Nearly 2000 exoplanets — planets orbiting other stars — have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered in 1995 with potentially enormous philosophical implications[**]. Without any exageration probably the biggest scientific discovery ever.
A first cosmic census estimates at least 50 billion (exo-)planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way. And this in contrast to the fact that just 20 years ago astronomers and phycisists told us we're the only planetary system in the whole universe. SETI 1995: "in fact many authorities felt our(s)" (...planetary system...) "might be unique".
200 years astronomers have searched in vain the night sky for planets around other stars...
Geschichte dieser Site(deutsch)
(Some links on these pages point today to nowhere land. I don't change this because I think this is a document.)
"No one would have predicted 10 years ago that we'd have any extrasolar planets. Even though we have now found more than 100 of them, these are still the early days in planet hunting." (planet hunter Geoffrey Marcy 2003)
"Astronomers have looked for
planets around other stars for over 50 years, with little success. But in the
mid-1990's that changed, and astronomers have been surprised ever since. "
Planets outside our solar system far out in the universe is the hottest topic of astronomers and astrophysics these days. On these pages you can read why they were detected and why they were detected so late, now only 20 years back ( in 1995 ). And now we have already nearly 2000 discoveries...
Further you can read why this disproves three of the main today used hypothesis in modern astrophysics and astronomy. Not by doubtfull and unprovable claims but by computer programs which are repeatable and verifiable by everyone. Data for these computer programs is from highly trustable federal instances (US and european) and accessible to everyone. If this would concern only astronomy and astrophysics one could say: 'if one or the other star gets classified wrong is of no concern to me'. No, the consequences out of these wrong hypothesis concern everyone, even more, human lives depend on and are endangered by these wrong hypothesis. Not to speak of the severe damage that the whole science experiences, starting by geology over biology over archaeology and and and....
The theories build around dark matter can be taken as disproved by now. Different researchers worldwide have found proves for this and at the same time strenghtening the here said. The XENON detector which should detect dark matter delivers only negative results. See also here. And here.
But it seems it won't take long till the here written is fully accepted. Now you can already hear astronomers say: 'planets are no big deal! They are commonplace! And 40 or more percent of the stars must have planets!' Others speak already of 70-80%. Read again these pages and you will know it's exactly 100 percent. May be some wobble so faint that we can't measure it, but that changes nothing on the fact that all 'shining' stars have planets.
Others tell in 2009 : "There could be one hundred billion Earth-like planets in our galaxy...". and Berkeley says in end of 2010: "Earth-Sized Alien Planets May Be Surprisingly Common" and "25% of Sun-like stars have Earth-like planets.. (and)...there could be even more Earth-size planets"
A first cosmic census estimates at least 50 billion planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way. And this in contrast to the fact that just 20 years ago astronomers and phycisists told us we're the only planetary system in the whole universe.
Evidence from observations lead now in 2013 more and more researchers to the same conclusion: "Extrapolating from Kepler's currently ongoing observations and results from other detection techniques, it looks like practically all Sun-like stars have planets".
And you can already hear: 'Nobody knows how brown dwarfs form'. Which is only a very small step away from: 'Nobody knows how stars form'. If you follow todays literature which states: 'Brown dwarfs form like stars'(The Brown Dwarf — Exoplanet Connection, J. W. Mason,Springer 2008) this is already today a synonyme. Even clearer: "(We) have (currently) no definition of what a planet is". Which is nothing else than the negative expression of: "We have currently no definition what a star is" .
By scrutinizing the planets found so far astronomers more and more realize that many of the planets found have masses which classify them according to todays definition as stars, disproving thereby todays theories on stars (and proving everything written on these pages thereby). And much to the surprise of astronomers many are orbiting in the opposite direction to the rotation of their host star, thereby disproving one of the central hypotheses of todays astro-physics. Read more..
After 20 years now (!) these papers (A&A,Jan 2011) are first proves of the calculations and descriptions on this site: "The barycentric motion of exoplanet host stars: tests of solar spin-orbit coupling" or this pdf: "Does a Spin–Orbit Coupling Between the Sun and the Jovian Planets Govern the Solar Cycle?" (more under new facts and links)
Copyright © R,Cooper-Bitsch 2006,2009,2010
**) The US-National Research Council : "The discovery of life on another planet is potentially one of the most important scientific advances of this century, let alone this decade, and it would have enormous philosophical implications."
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